Industrial energy conservation and environmental protection has become an important trend in global development.
In recent years, green economy and green industry have become a hot research field in the world. As a major manufacturing country, developing green economy and expanding green industry by promoting green manufacturing is one of the important contents for China to implement the strategy of manufacturing power. This paper will focus on analyzing the trends of green manufacturing in the world and China, combing the successful experiences and practices of major economies, and putting forward countermeasures and Suggestions based on the development needs of green manufacturing in China.
(1) green and low carbon has become an important trend in the development of the world today.
Green low carbon development, is through the development of resource saving and environment-friendly industries, enhance energy and resource utilization efficiency, reduce energy consumption of production process and material consumptions, to realize the protection and restoration of ecological environment, economic and social development in harmony with the nature of the target. The development idea of green and low-carbon is the inevitable choice of any country's economic and social development to a certain stage, and the development of green economy is the concrete practice to promote green and low-carbon development. Green economy is a kind of economy that "promotes the improvement of human welfare and social justice while significantly reducing environmental risk and ecological scarcity". Traditional development mode which rely on the pursuit of quantity expansion, increase inputs to achieve growth, brings a great threat to the global ecological environment, and the green economy to economic development and ecological environment protection of harmonious and unified, is the important path of realizing the sustainable development, cooperate hand in hand with boosting economic growth to green low carbon transformation has become a global consensus.
In today's world, resources and environment are the common challenges facing mankind. Green and low-carbon development is becoming the trend and trend of international development. Especially under the background of tackling the international financial crisis and climate change, promote green growth, the implementation of green New Deal is the world's major economies to select, develop green economy, conquers the highest position in the future global economic competition has become a national important strategy. Countries are actively pursuing green, low carbon, intelligent, sustainable development, especially since entering new century, the green economy, low-carbon economy and circular economy concept are proposed and put into practice. Developed countries have implemented "industrialization", reshape new manufacturing competitive advantage, clean, efficient, low carbon, circulation and other green concept, improve the influence of the policies and regulations, resources, energy efficiency become the important factor of measuring national manufacturing industry competitiveness.
Through the development of green development and green economy, the relevant UN agencies have played a key and irreplaceable role. In the early 1990 s, the academia for global green economy has carried out a large number of basic theoretical research, after 20 years of development, the concept and theory in order to cause the extensive concern of the international community. After the United Nations began to use frequently in its meetings, the green economy and green development concept gradually moved from the academic research level to the policy operation level. In 2008, in response to the financial crisis, the United Nations environment programme (unep) green economy and green New Deal initiatives, emphasis on "green" can be a momentum of economic growth, called on member states to develop green economy, the transition of economic growth. In 2011, the United Nations environment programme (unep) released a report on "the path towards a green economy: ways to achieve sustainable development and eradicate poverty." It is suggested that by 2050, if 2 per cent of global gross domestic product is invested in 10 major sectors of the economy, it could accelerate the global economic transition to a green economy.
(2) green manufacturing is a comprehensive consideration.
At present, there are many definitions of green manufacturing at home and abroad. The society of manufacturing engineers (SME) definition of green manufacturing are given as follows: green manufacturing, also called the cleanness, the goal is to make the products from the whole process of design, production, transportation and recycling to minimize the negative impact on the environment, the connotation of the whole process of the product life cycle are green. Member of China's lu for green manufacturing is defined as: green manufacturing refers to the guarantee product function, quality and cost under the premise of considering the environmental impact and resource efficiency of modern manufacturing mode, it make the product from the design, manufacture, use to scrap the whole life cycle does not produce environmental pollution or minimize the environmental pollution, save resources and energy, resource utilization is highest, lowest energy consumption, enterprise economic benefit and social ecological benefit coordination optimization. Ministry of science and technology of the green manufacturing technology development "twelfth five-year" special planning for green manufacturing is defined as: "the function of the green manufacturing is a guarantee product, under the premise of quality, cost, comprehensive consideration of the environmental impact and efficiency of the resources of modern manufacturing mode, through technology innovation and system optimization, make the products in the design, manufacturing, logistics, use, recycling, dismantling and recycling process, the whole life cycle of the environmental impact of minimum, highest energy utilization of resources, human health and social harm minimum, and make the enterprise economic benefit and social benefit coordination optimization.
Compared with the traditional manufacturing mode, the core idea of green manufacturing is to consider the resource environment of the product life cycle. We try to give the definition of green manufacturing, green manufacture, also known as environmental awareness, sustainable manufacturing, etc., is a comprehensive consideration of environmental impact and resource consumption of modern manufacturing mode, its core is the green concept and technology through the whole life cycle of whole industry chain and product manufacturing, through technical innovation and system optimization do manufacturing minimum negative impact to the environment, the resources use efficiency is highest, so as to realize economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit coordination. The main development direction of green manufacturing can be summarized as "five factors" : the ecological stress of product design is emphasized, and the resource and environmental impact of the whole life cycle should be taken into consideration in the design and development stage. Cleaner production process emphasizes the improvement of resource utilization efficiency from source to reduce or avoid pollutants generation; High efficiency of energy utilization emphasizes the energy efficiency and energy efficiency of the production process. Recycling recycling emphasizes that the original waste resources are re-entered into the manufacturing process of the product. Industrial coupling integration emphasizes the efficiency of inter-enterprise resource utilization and pollutant emission reduction.
Green manufacturing is an important foundation for the development of a green economy.
Green manufacturing dates back to the 1980s. Development of green manufacturing system can be divided into the concept, construction of the theoretical system and practical application of the three stages, from concept to theory, from theory to practice, the implementation of green manufacturing has gradually become an important basis and means of green economy development.
One is the conceptual stage. In 1987, the world commission on environment and development formally put forward the "sustainable development" strategy in our common future report. In 1992, the United Nations conference on environment and development through the "about the Rio declaration on environment and development," agenda 21 "and other important documents, the concept of sustainable development for the wide recognition of governments and the international community. On this basis, in 1996 the American society of manufacturing engineers (SME) in the green manufacturing blue book systematically puts forward the concept of green manufacturing for the first time since research institutions around the world from different angles and situation, discusses the connotation of the concept of green manufacturing.
The second is the construction stage of theoretical system. After the concept of green manufacturing was put forward, all countries in the world began to study the theory of green manufacturing, and gradually formed the green manufacturing theory system. British expert Melntk and Smith argue that green manufacturing is a long-term, continuous improvement process. Green manufacturing engineering Georgia institute of technology professor Bras proposed five stages: at the end of treatment and environmental engineering, pollution prevention, environmental consciousness design and manufacturing, industrial ecology and sustainable development. Professor Sutherland of the university of Michigan argues that green manufacturing requires two levels of thinking, namely, the corporate and workshop layers. Professor Graedal of Yale university has proposed four steps towards green manufacturing. Burke and Gaughran, a German expert, put forward a framework for the sustainable management of small and medium-sized enterprises. Professor liu fei of chongqing university and other comprehensive domestic and international studies have preliminarily established the structure of China's green manufacturing theory.
Third, the practical application stage. With the deepening of theoretical research, green manufacturing moves from theory to practice. Developed countries and international organizations have launched policies, standards and laws on green manufacturing. For example, ISO environmental management system series standard, eu RoHS and WEEE directive, Germany "blue sky angel" green product logo plan, us "energy star" and other products environmental certification mark, etc. Developing countries, including China, have also made green manufacturing a major strategy for transforming economic growth, addressing resource shortages and environmental pollution, and actively conducting pilot demonstrations. At present, many multinational companies have set green manufacturing targets and measures to carry out specific tasks such as energy saving and consumption reduction, product life cycle assessment, environmental audit and green product development.
(4) green industry is becoming the commanding point of global economic competition.
The green industries, such as new energy, have grown rapidly in recent years, with an average annual growth rate of 58.6% between 2001 and 2011, thanks to lower technology costs and a government push. In 2009, according to BP's statistics show that renewable energy share of global energy consumption ratio is negligible, only 5 years, renewable energy in 2014 accounted for the proportion of global energy consumption is increased to more than 2%, consider to scale and cost advantages of traditional energy such as fossil, is a remarkable progress.
Also attaches great importance to the development of renewable energy in China green emerging industries, such as hydropower, wind power, solar power generation in recent years rapid development, equipment manufacturing and the installed capacity in the global scale in the first tier, has an important influence. At the same time, the state council "energy development strategic action plan (2014-2020)," also describes the up to the end of "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" grand blueprint of renewable energy development in our country, by 2020, non-fossil energy of primary energy consumption ratio reached 15%, higher than the world average. Specific include: one is the positive development of hydropower in the ecological environment protection and the premise of resettlement, actively pushing large hydropower bases, adjust measures to local conditions to develop small and medium-sized power stations, to strive to conventional hydropower reached 350 million 2020 kw; Second, we will vigorously develop wind power, focus on planning and building 9 large-scale modern wind power bases and supporting projects, steadily develop offshore wind power, and reach 200 million kilowatts by 2020. Third, we will accelerate the development of solar power generation, advance the construction of photovoltaic bases in an orderly manner, and accelerate the construction of a demonstration zone for the application of distributed photovoltaic power generation. By 2020, photovoltaic installations will reach about 100 million kilowatts. Fourth, we will actively develop geothermal energy, biomass energy and ocean energy, and reach 50 million tons of standard coal by 2020.
However, under the background of global slowdown and declining demand, green industries such as new energy have become increasingly prominent in global production capacity and competition. As the international financial crisis continues to deepen, solar power and other renewable energy industry entered into an unprecedented winter, global famous solar industry research institution, points out that in 2012 global solar power demand grew only 5% from a year earlier, less than 10% for the first time since the new century. According to the European photovoltaic industry association, the average annual growth rate of the global solar power industry in the next few years is about 20 percent, far lower than the growth rate of more than 50 percent in the first 10 years of the new century. At the same time, fierce competition leads to the rise of trade protectionism, and green trade barriers pose new challenges to existing trade rules.
(5) the policy instruments for promoting green manufacturing are increasingly strengthened.
To better promote the green development, enhance the level of green manufacturing, governments have introduced a carbon tax and carbon labels, green manufacturing standards, become an important policy to promote the development of green economy.
One is that more and more countries are starting to impose carbon taxes. A carbontax is a tax on carbon dioxide emissions. A carbon tax to ecological environment protection, for the purpose of through to the coal, oil and its downstream products according to the carbon content of fossil fuels proportional tax, to achieve reduce fossil energy consumption and co2 emissions. Countries such as Britain, Germany, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Sweden have introduced different carbon tax policies in the European Union, particularly in northern Europe. Other developed countries for a carbon tax is the eu countries later, as per capita carbon emissions of the worst countries in the world, a city of Colorado, United States there are only a carbon tax, Canadian province since July 2008, the introduction of a carbon tax, Australia since July 1, 2012 implementation of carbon tax policy. But overall, carbon tax collection is a big trend in global response to green development, and China is also actively researching and formulating relevant policies and measures.
The second is the carbon label from the simple green product logo development into the product trade international pass. CarbonLabel is a label that labels the amount of greenhouse gases emitted during its entire life cycle.
The form informs the consumer. Carbon labelling system is a kind of encourage consumers to protect the environment, the formation of green consumption habits, the method of lead producers to promote social responsibility from the perspective of demand, more low carbon green product design and manufacture. However, in the actual implementation process, it has gradually evolved into an implicit market access condition, which seems to be irresistible. Since 2007, more than a dozen countries, including the United States, Britain, France, Germany and Japan, have introduced carbon labeling systems.
Third, the green manufacturing standard and so on have a broad impact on production life. The Obama administration took office, the green manufacturing standards as an important tool to revive manufacturing, key in the car and household appliances industry introduce stricter efficiency standards, subsidies for green energy-saving products; The U.S. government has also worked with congress to enact a green trade-related bill that would require all products sold in the U.S. to meet green standards. The eu continues to strengthen government green procurement measures, with green products accounting for about 20 per cent of eu public procurement.
International cooperation and competition for green development have not reached an end.
Look to the future, only in a new round of green economy and green technology competition, to win the initiative in the future of international economic competition, international cooperation in the field of green economy and green development trends and industry competition situation it is necessary to continue to pay attention to and in-depth analysis.
First, developing countries lag behind the developed countries in the capacity of green technology innovation, but the scale of investment in related fields has come to the fore. Green low carbon technology innovation is still mainly concentrated in the high-income countries, between 2006 and 2010 statistics of green patent in the United States, more than 6000 from developed countries, developing countries and emerging economies are a total of only a few hundred items. However, developing countries in the field of investment to promote the development of green economy has thus, 2010 investment in the field of renewable energy in developing countries than developed countries for the first time in 2004, they in this domain investment scale was only about a quarter of the developed countries.
Second, the desire for cooperation between developed and developing countries has increased, but the concerns about promoting global green economic development are markedly different. At present, countries in the field of green development cooperation intention, a good momentum of development of international cooperation, in June 2012, the United Nations conference on sustainable development held in Brazil, nearly 130 heads of state and government attended the meeting. However, due to different economic and social development stages and current demands for ecological protection, developing countries are concerned that excessive emphasis on green environmental protection will have a negative impact on domestic poverty reduction efforts.
Third, the competition between the dominant power of green development leads to the increasingly fierce game of great powers. The European Union, for example, plans to impose restrictions on the emissions of international flights from the eu's national airports starting from January 1, 2012, forcing airlines to include them in their carbon.